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An AC generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy in the form of alternating current (AC). The basic components of an AC generator include a rotor (the rotating part) and a stator (the stationary part). The rotor consists of a coil of wire that rotates inside a magnetic field, which is created by the stator. The magnetic field is typically produced by an electromagnet or a permanent magnet.
As the rotor spins, the coil of wire cuts through the lines of magnetic force, inducing EMF in the coil. This EMF is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic field, which in turn is proportional to the speed of rotation of the rotor. The output voltage of the generator can be controlled by varying the speed of the rotor.
The output voltage of an AC generator is sinusoidal in nature, which means that the voltage varies in a cyclical pattern over time. The frequency of the AC voltage depends on the speed of rotation of the rotor and the number of poles in the stator.