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An electric cell, also known as a voltaic cell or galvanic cell, is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consists of two electrodes, typically made of different metals or materials, that are immersed in an electrolyte solution. The two electrodes are connected by a wire, and the flow of electrons through the wire generates an electric current.
The two electrodes in an electric cell are called the anode and the cathode. The anode is the electrode where oxidation occurs, and it releases electrons into the wire. The cathode is the electrode where reduction occurs, and it accepts electrons from the wire. The electrolyte solution contains ions that allow the flow of electrons between the electrodes.
Internal resistance is the resistance to the flow of current within the cell itself. When a current flows through an electric cell, some of the electrical energy is converted into heat due to the internal resistance. This means that the amount of electrical energy delivered to an external circuit is less than the total amount of electrical energy produced by the cell.
The internal resistance of an electric cell can be measured using a potentiometer.