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The current through a resistor $R$ when a potential difference $V$ is applied across it is given by \begin{align} I=\frac{V}{R} \end{align}

**Problem (IIT JEE 1985): **
The current-voltage graphs for a given metallic wire at two different temperatures $T_1$ and $T_2$ are shown in figure. The temperature $T_2$ is greater than $T_1$. (True/False)?

**Solution: **
Let $R_1$ and $R_2$ be resistances of the metallic wire at temperature $T_1$ and $T_2$, respectively. Ohm's law, $V=IR$, gives slope of the $I\text{-}V$ graph as $\mathrm{d}I/\mathrm{d}V=1/R$. In given graph, slope at $T_1$ is greater than slope at $T_2$ i.e., $1/R_1 > 1/R_2$ or $R_1 < R_2$. The resistance of the metallic wire varies with temperature as,
\begin{align}
\label{ubb:eqn:1}
R_1=R_0(1+\alpha(T_1-T_0),\\
\label{ubb:eqn:2}
R_2=R_0(1+\alpha(T_2-T_0),
\end{align}
where $\alpha > 0$ is thermal coefficient of resistance and $R_0$ is resistance at temperature $T_0$.
Substitute $R_1$ and $R_2$ from above equations into the inequality $R_1 < R_2$ to get $T_1 < T_2$.

- Verification of Ohm's Law using Voltmeter and Ammeter
- Electrical Resistance
- Electric Cell
- Kirchhoff's Laws
- Heating Effect of Current

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