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The Rutherford model describes the structure of an atom in terms of a small, dense, positively charged nucleus at the center, with negatively charged electrons orbiting around it.
In the Rutherford model, the nucleus of an atom is composed of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while electrons orbit around the nucleus at different energy levels.
Rutherford's model was based on gold foil experiment, in which a beam of alpha particles was directed at a thin gold foil. Rutherford observed that most of the alpha particles passed straight through the foil, but a small fraction were deflected at large angles or even reflected back towards the source. This observation led Rutherford to conclude that the atom must contain a small, positively charged nucleus that accounted for the deflection of the alpha particles.